By using an outro, the songwriter signals that the song is, in fact, nearing its end. As such, the rhythm section typically plays in the "feel" of the song that follows. Some bands have the guitar player do a guitar solo during the outro, but it is not the focus of the section; instead, it is more to add interesting improvisation. The chorus (or "refrain") usually consists of a melodic and lyrical phrase that repeats. During an ad lib section, the rhythm may become freer (with the rhythm section following the vocalist), or the rhythm section may stop entirely, giving the vocalist the freedom to use whichever tempo sounds right. Some pop songs may have a solo section, particularly in rock or blues-influenced pop. A minor is the ii chord in G Major, and it is the vi chord in C Major. The verse is the part of the song that tells a story. Although both have lines that are repeated and may contain the title, the refrain and chorus vary in length. You would want your title to be memorable and fitting to the theme of the song. Verse-chorus form or ABA form may be combined with AABA form, in compound AABA forms. [12], A bridge may be a transition, but in popular music, it more often is "...a section that contrasts with the verse...[,] usually ends on the dominant...[,] [and] often culminates in a strong re-transitional. In the AABA, the title usually appears at the beginning or end of the A section. The "I've Got Rhythm" example also provides contrast because the harmonic rhythm changes in the B section. The B section may be made to contrast by putting it in a new harmony. [21], ABABCB format may be found in John Cougar Mellencamp's "Hurts So Good", Tina Turner's "What's Love Got to Do with It? However, if songwriters use an elided cadence, they can bring the section to a cadence on the tonic, and then, immediately after this cadence, begin a new section of music which overlaps with the cadence. The B section is often intended as a contrast to the A sections that precede and follow it. The most straightforward, and least risky way to write an introduction is to use a section from the song. Pop and traditional forms can be used even with songs that have structural differences in melodies. As such, at the minimum, the composer or arranger often modifies the harmony of the end of the different A sections to guide the listener through the key changes. A refrain is a line (also can be the title) that is repeated at the end of every verse. Popular music songs traditionally use the same music for each verse or stanza of lyrics (as opposed to songs that are "through-composed"—an approach used in classical music art songs). It is shorter than the verse and should offer a reason why the final chorus needs to be repeated. [4] A refrain is a repetitive phrase or phrases that serve the function of a chorus lyrically, but are not in a separate section or long enough to be a chorus. Refrain. The verse is the part of the song that tells a story. The terms chorus and refrain are often used interchangeably,[7] both referring to a recurring part of a song. Pop songs may have an introduction and coda ("tag"), but these elements are not essential to the identity of most songs. An optional section that may occur after the verse is the pre-chorus. A song employing a middle eight might look like: By adding a powerful upbeat middle eight, musicians can then end the song with a hook in the end chorus and finale. "[3] The tonic or "home key" chord of a song can be prolonged in a number of ways. An ad lib section of a song (usually in the coda or outro) occurs when the main lead vocal or a second lead vocal breaks away from the already established lyric and/or melody to add melodic interest and intensity to the end of the song. With an instrumental and vocal tag, the band and vocalist typically repeat a section of the song, such as the chorus, to give emphasis to its message. Each verse usually employs the same melody (possibly with some slight modifications), while the lyrics usually change for each verse. "[9] For example, John Denver's "Country Roads" is a song with a bridge while Stevie Wonder's "You Are the Sunshine of My Life" is a song without one.[9]. The introduction is a unique section that comes at the beginning of the piece. When a tribute band plays a cover song that, in the recorded version ends with a fade-out, the live band may imitate that by playing progressively quieter. [12] The concept of a post-chorus has been particularly popularized and analyzed by music theorist Asaf Peres, who is followed in this section. AAA format may be found in Bob Dylan's "The Times They Are a-Changin'", and songs like "The House of the Rising Sun", and "Clementine". Pop songs often connect the verse and chorus via a bridge, which as its name suggests, is a section that connects the verse and chorus at one or more points in the song. A cliche used to indicate to the listener that this G Major section is in fact the dominant chord of another key area is to add the dominant seventh, which in this case would shift the harmony to a G7 chord. With songs, another role of the intro is to give the singer the key of the song. Whereas the A sections contain a vibrant, exciting feel of two chord changes per bar (e.g., the first two bars are often B♭–g minor/c minor–F7), the B section consists of two bars of D7, two bars of G7, two bars of C7 and two bars of F7. For example, for a blues shuffle, a band starts playing a shuffle rhythm. However, not all songs have an intro of this type. Covach, John. The verse functions the same way; it gives listeners more insight leading to the main message of the song and it moves the story forward. Let's take our example for the AAA song form: at the end of each verse of "Bridge Over Troubled Water," the line (which also happens to be the title) "Like a bridge over troubled water" is repeated. More rarely, the introduction may begin by suggesting or implying another key. Harmonic theorists and arrangers would call it V7/V or five of five, as the D7 chord is the dominant (or fifth) chord of G Major. The refrain is different from the chorus. [19], AABA may be found in Crystal Gayle's "Don't It Make My Brown Eyes Blue", Billy Joel's "Just the Way You Are", and The Beatles' "Yesterday". Both the fade-out and the ritardando are ways of decreasing the intensity of a song and signalling that it is nearing its conclusion. Thirty-two-bar form uses four sections, most often eight measures long each (4×8=32), two verses or A sections, a contrasting B section (the bridge or "middle-eight") and a return of the verse in one last A section (AABA). With an instrumental tag, the vocalist no longer sings, and the band's rhythm section takes over the music to finish off the song. There is no D7 chord in C Major. Turn! As with distinguishing the pre-chorus from a verse, it can be difficult to distinguish the post-chorus from the chorus. A guitar solo during an outro is typically mixed lower than a mid-song guitar solo. This gives the listeners a good sense of closure. The refrain is shorter than the chorus; often the refrain is composed of 2 lines while the chorus can be made up of several lines. "The chorus, which gets its name from a usual thickening of texture from the addition of backing vocals, is always a discrete section that nearly always prolongs the tonic and carries an unvaried poetic text. "[6] Often, when verse and chorus use the same harmonic structure, the pre-chorus introduces a new harmonic pattern or harmony that prepares the verse chords to transition into the chorus. The foundation of popular music is the "verse" and "chorus" structure. The primary difference between the two is that when the music of the verse returns, it is almost always given a new set of lyrics, whereas the chorus usually retains the same set of lyrics every time its music appears. The coda is an optional addition to a song. ", and ZZ Top's "Sharp Dressed Man". In the AAA song form, titles are placed either at the beginning or end of each verse. [20], ABA (verse/chorus or chorus/verse) format may be found in Pete Seeger's "Turn! The title of the song is very important; think of yourself as a salesperson who needs to pitch a product and the title as the name of that product. In pop music, there may be a guitar solo, or a solo may be performed by a synthesizer player or sax player. For this reason, even if an intro includes chords other than the tonic, it generally ends with a cadence, either on the tonic or dominant chord. As well, the composer or arranger may re-harmonize the melody on one or more of the A sections, to provide variety. In the key given, ii of G Major would be an A minor chord. In many songs, the band does a ritardando during the outro, a process of gradually slowing down the tempo. Guitar solos are common in rock music, particularly heavy metal and in the blues. In some cases they appear separately – for example, the post-chorus only appears after the second and third chorus, but not the first – and thus are clearly distinguishable. It is mostly used in fast-paced music, and it is designed to create tension and drama. In the verse/chorus and verse/chorus/bridge song, the title often begins or ends the chorus. "[5] A verse of a song, is a repeated sung melody where the words change from use to use (though not necessarily a great deal). Another way many pop and rock songs end is with a tag. [citation needed], An optional section that may occur after the chorus is the post-chorus (or postchorus). Espie Estrella is a lyricist, songwriter, and member of the Nashville Songwriters Association International. The main theme is expressed in the chorus; the title of the song is usually included in the chorus too.

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