In eastern Siberia, they prey on roe deer, Manchurian wapiti, wild pig, musk deer and reindeer, while in Primorye they feed on sika deer and goral. They are not recorded from desert regions. In Mongolia, they prey on argali and rarely Siberian ibex. The summer coat is shorter, coarser, and darker. [66] In Central Asia, dholes mainly live in mountainous areas. [102] Prey weighing less than 50 kg is usually killed within two minutes, while large stags may take 15 minutes to die. They rarely hunt nocturnally, except on moonlit nights, indicating they greatly rely on sight when hunting. In the winter coat, the back is clothed in a saturated rusty-red to reddish colour with brownish highlights along the top of the head, neck and shoulders. However, later studies showed that the dhole and the African wild dog are closely related to other members of the genus Canis. [42], Historically, up to 10 subspecies of dholes have been recognised. [1], The etymology of "dhole" is unclear. [113], Dholes are vulnerable to a number of different diseases, particularly in areas where they are sympatric with other canid species. IUCN Species Range Map Description The Dhole, otherwise known as the Asiatic Wild Dog, Whistling Dog or Red Wolf, has been described as a canid which combines … By the Middle Pleistocene, C. majori had lost the last lower molar altogether. [12], There are few large packs of dholes in the Malaysian Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Vietnam and Thailand. [8] During the Pleistocene, the dhole ranged throughout Asia, Europe, and North America but became restricted to its historical range 12,000–18,000 years ago. In contrast, dhole clans frequently break into small packs of 3 to 5 animals, particularly during the spring season, as this is the optimal number for catching fawns. In the early 20th century, dhole pelts reached eight rubles in Manchuria. It once inhabited the alpine steppes extending into Kashmir to the Ladakh area, but has not been recorded in Pakistan. [17] Richard Lydekker wrote nearly 80 years later that the word was not used by the natives living within the species' range. primaerus, and the C.a. "Then and Now: Updates from Russia's Imperiled Zapovedniks". Playful dholes open their mouths with their lips retracted and their tails held in a vertical position whilst assuming a play bow. They are never found in the open plains and deserts. Other English names for the species include Asian wild dog, Asiatic wild dog, Indian wild dog, whistling dog, red dog, and mountain wolf. They live in packs of 2–25 individuals. Their diet includes Sambar Deer, Gaur, Water Buffalo and there is even one record of a pack bringing down an Indian Elephant calf. The Montefalcone family's coat of arms had a pair of red dogs as supporters.[16]. The dhole's gestation period is 60-62 days.

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